特邀嘉宾/Keynote Speakers

Sir John Gurdon

 

    Sir John B. Gurdon,2012年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获得者。此前,人们认为体细胞的分化状态非常稳定从而确保我们的身体组织和器官的正常功能,几乎没有细胞变成另一种类型的细胞。约翰·伯特兰·格登挑战了已分化的细胞不可逆转的传统观点,他假设已分化细胞的基因组也许仍然存在可以指导细胞分化为不同类型细胞的信息。1962年,他将蝌蚪的分化细胞的细胞核移植进入卵母细胞质中后,细胞核指导卵细胞发育为性成熟成体青蛙,验证了他的猜想:成熟细胞的细胞核并未丢失指导细胞发育为功能有机体的驱动力。这一实验具有划时代的意义,他首次证实了已分化细胞的基因组的可通核移植技术将其重新转化为具有多能性的细胞。这为细胞替代治疗提供了一个有效的方法,可以用易获得的细胞比如皮肤来替代另一种细胞。

    研究方向:细胞核移植和克隆研究。

        Sir John B. Gurdon, Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 2012.

The differentiated state of adult cells is remarkably stable, and ensures the normal function of our body tissues and organs. Hardly ever does a cell of one kind change into a different kind of cell. However, John B. Gurdon challenged the dogma that the specialised cell is irreversibly committed to its fate. He hypothesised that its genome might still contain all the information needed to drive its development into all the different cell types of an organism. In 1962, he tested this hypothesis by replacing the cell nucleus of a frog's egg cell with a nucleus from a mature, specialised cell derived from the intestine of a tadpole. The egg developed into a fully functional, cloned tadpole and subsequent repeats of the experiment yielded adult frogs. The nucleus of the mature cell had not lost its capacity to drive development to a fully functional organism. This opens the way to provide therapeutically useful replacement cells of any kind from other readily available cells of another kind, such as skin.

The main focus of research in their laboratory is nuclear transplantation and cloning.